Since the middle of the 19th century Japanese Enamelists had been systematically refining the technological processes involved in Enamel making. Around the turn of the century it is artists such as Ando Jubei that solidify Japan’s reputation as the country that produces the world’s most sophisticated works of Jewellery Enamel.
After the First World War Jewellery Enamel is predominantly used in the service of Art Déco. This new aesthetic is now favouring clear geometric shapes over the intricate organic designs of Art Nouveau. In this epoch two of the most important producers of Jewellery Enamel are Gérard Sandoz and the Cartier company.
After World War II artists like Lili Schultz (who originally trained at Bauhaus) usher in the return of Jewellery Enamel into the field of pictorial art. Contemporary artists are using the medium of Jewellery Enamel in manifold ways, ranging from the depiction of abstract-monochrome landscapes (e.g. René Roberts), to brightly coloured Neosymbolist sculptures and portraits (e.g. Jessica Calderwood).